President: Dr. João Havelange (Brazil)
General Secretary: Joseph S. Blatter (Switzerland)
Address: FIFA House, 11 Hitzigweg
8030 Zurich, Switzerland
Telephone: +41 (1) 384-9595
Telefax: +41 (1) 384-9696
Telex: 817-204 fifa ch

President: Lennart Johansson (Sweden)
General Secretary: Gerhard Aigner (Germany)
Address: Chemin de la Redoute 54
CH-1260 Nyon, Switzerland
Telephone: +41 (22) 994 4444
Telefax: +41 (22) 994 4488
Telex: 912-037 uef ch

Compiled jointly by FIFA and UEFA

From left: Messrs. Negroni, Gagg, Schmidt, Walker, Mandetta .


The new safety regulations issued by FIFA and UEFA, the demand for better facilities for spectators and the call for multi-purpose stadia have given rise to the need for action with regard to stadium construction. Many owners are required to invest considerable sums of money in renovating their stadia. FIFA and UEFA have received so many questions relating to stadium construction that the world federation and the European confederation formed a working party to study the manifold problems involved in building stadia.

The result of this study is a booklet which is intended to serve as a guide whenever a new stadium is to be built or an old one refurbished. The contents of the booklet are not intended to be binding but to serve as recommendations to be taken into account when constructing or refurbishing a stadium.

Horst R. Schmidt, General Secretary German FA, FIFA adviser
Keith Cooper, FIFA Director of Communications
Walter Gagg, FIFA Technical Director

Ernie Walker, Chairman UEFA Stadia Committee
Claudio Negroni, Assistant, UEFA Competition Department

Ing. Saverio Mandetta, CONI (Italy)
Member of the Committee for European Norms


When a new stadium is being constructed, great care must be taken regarding its location and the angle of the playing field in relation to the sun and the prevailing weather conditions. It is essential that players, spectators and representatives be protected as far as possible from the sun's glare.

When choosing a location, there should be sufficient open space surrounding the stadium to provide for any future development. The chosen site must be accessible by motorway and rail from the city in order to make arrival and departure as simple as possible for spectators.

Environmental compatibility is, of course, a prime consideration when selecting a site for a stadium. It is a complex and delicate subject which must be approached with great care and sensitivity on the part of developers.


It is recommended that when planning and constructing a new stadium or when modernising an existing stadium, care should be taken to provide for the possibility of local community involvement by supplying meeting rooms, restaurants, games halls, sports facilities, shops, offices, etc.


The degree of luxury and comfort which may be built into a stadium will depend upon the amount of money available but the absolute essential requirements which must be met regardless of funding levels are the safety and security of all of the people who will use the facility, be they spectators, players, officials or staff.

Even before the basic planning begins, it should be absolutely clearly understood by everyone concerned in the planning, designing and construction processes that human safety will be the first and foremost consideration and that it will be a consideration which may not, under any circumstances, be put aside or circumvented in any way in order to accommodate other requirements.

A modern stadium should aspire to provide the following facilities:

  1. A roof over all spectators. This is particularly desirable in cold, wet climates, but even in those areas where relatively constant sunshine is normal, the shade provided by a roof should be available to all spectators.

    It does seem probable that in the 21st century, there will be a move towards stadia which can be completely covered over by a roof which will make it possible to heat the arena in cold weather or provide air conditioning when it is hot outside. Dramatic advances in the concept of growing grass indoors and the ever-improving technology concerning the manufacture of artificial turf make the completely covered stadium, perhaps with a roof which may open and close rapidly, a realistic proposition.

    One does not build a stadium with only the purposes and needs of the next few years in mind but in the hope that the facility which emerges will serve the eventual requirements of the generations to come. Those who built the coliseum were visionaries and not much by way of improvement seems to have been thought of since then. Perhaps it is time to start revolutionising the whole business.

  2. All spectators should be seated. Seats must be individual, affixed to the floor, comfortably shaped with backrests sufficiently high to provide support (minimum compulsory height 30 cm). They should be numbered in a way that makes them clearly and easily identifiable.

    There should be sufficient leg-room between the rows of seats to ensure that spectators' knees do not touch the seat or spectator in the row in front and to render it relatively easy for spectators to move into or out of the rows even when they are full.

  3. There should be an unobstructed view of the playing area from all seats.

    Ideally, it is preferable if the playing area is not surrounded by a broad running track.

  4. Sufficient toilet facilities must be provided for both sexes, both inside and outside the stadium. These amenities should include adequate washing facilities and must be bright, clean and fresh. The awful, dark, crude caverns of the past must not be repeated.

    To avoid crushing between spectators entering and leaving toilets there should be a "one way" access system, or at least doors which are sufficiently wide to permit the division of the passageway into "in" and "out" channels.

  5. Selling points for food and beverages should be plentiful, clean, attractive and easily reached. They should not be situated in any position where queuing customers would obstruct the free flow of other spectators.

  6. Attention should be paid to the important matter of public communication facilities within the stadium, by means of giant scoreboard screens, public address system, etc.

    An adequate number of public telephones should be available in and around the stadium.

  7. A modern stadium should provide a reasonable amount of corporate hospitality suites, private viewing boxes, function rooms, etc. They are an important part of the stadium's income potential.


The playing field, which must be absolutely smooth and level, must be of natural grass, in perfect condition and have an efficient watering system for use in dry weather. In cold climates, the playing field should be equipped with an undersoil heating system to prevent it from freezing in extreme winter conditions.

Whilst the Laws of the Game stipulate the maximum and minimum dimensions for playing fields it has to be appreciated that a stadium should provide a larger grass area than is actually required for the playing field, in order to allow for the possibility that the playing field may be shifted from time to time, by a few metres, in any direction. Bearing this in mind, the following dimensions are recommended.

  1. Recommended dimensions of grass area and of playing field
    grass area:
    length: 120 m
    breadth: 80 m

    playing field:
    ­ for all matches at top professional level, it is recommended that the dimensions of the playing field should be 105 x 68 m.

    ­ for all matches in the final competition of the FIFA World Cup and the final competitions of confederation championships throughout the world, only the dimensions of 105 x 68 m are acceptable.

  2. Service track surrounding the grass area
    Many stadia have grass from wall to wall within the playing area, whilst others prefer to have a concrete-type service track surrounding the grass area in order to facilitate movement within the playing area of maintenance vehicles, ambulances, security vehicles, etc. This is largely a matter of preference and whatever style is chosen will depend upon the individual requirements of each stadium.

  3. Recommended minimum distances from the playing field boundary lines to the retaining wall or moat:
    from the touchline: 6.0 m
    from each goal-line: 7.5 m

  4. Boundary lines
    There should be a grass verge of a minimum width of 1.5 m outside the boundary lines of the playing field in stadia which cannot comply with the dimensions recommended above.

  5. Drainage
    The entire playing area should have a drainage system to eliminate the possibility of it becoming unplayable due to flooding.

  6. Track
    If there is a track surrounding the playing field, the point where the grass verge meets the track should be level so as not to endanger players, linesmen or any other person using the track.

  7. Danger to players and others
    Nothing in the playing field or its immediate surroundings should constitute a danger to players or others whose purpose takes them into the playing area. For example, the goal nets should not be suspended by means of a metal frame of any kind but should be suspended by some other method which clearly does not constitute a danger. If pins of any kind are used to fasten the nets to the ground they must not protrude above ground level.

  8. Substitutes' benches
    There should be two benches situated one on each side of the centre line, parallel to the touchline outside and at a minimum distance of 5 m from the playing area. The nearest point of each bench to the centre line should be at least 5 m from the point where the centre line meets the touchline. Both benches should be equidistant from the touchline and from the centre line.

    Each bench should be able to accommodate at least 10 persons, although this number may have to be increased in accordance with the regulations of the competition concerned. Benches should be placed at ground level.

    They must be protected by a transparent plexiglass type shell against bad weather or missiles thrown by spectators.

    Seats should have backrests.

  9. Access
    Emergency services vehicles, including ambulances and fire engines, should be able to gain access to the playing area.


Ideally, the playing area of a stadium should not be surrounded by security fences or screens, and although it has to be recognised that there may be places and circumstances in which it would be imprudent to fail to provide such measures against intrusion, there is little doubt that a more civilized and pleasant atmosphere prevails when there are no unsightly barriers between spectators and the playing field.

Whatever security concept is adopted, it is essential that the match participants be protected against intrusion by spectators. This may be accomplished in any number of ways including, for example, the use of any of the following measures, or the use of a combination thereof, depending upon circumstances:

  1. The presence of police and/or security personnel in or near the playing area.

  2. A seating configuration which situates front-row spectators at a height above the arena which would render intrusion into the playing area improbable, if not impossible.

  3. Moats of a sufficient width or depth to protect the playing field.

Sufficiently high barriers to prevent the danger of anyone falling into the moat should exist on both the spectators' side and the pitch side.

Moats should not contain water, but should have climbing obstructions or should be constructed in such a way as to prevent the unlawful intrusion of spectators into the playing area.

When moats are being constructed, it should be kept in mind that the possibility may arise at some time in the future that they might be covered over if an improvement in terms of spectator behaviour should merit it.

  1. Insurmountable transparent screens or insurmountable fences, which may either be mounted permanently or affixed in such a way that they may be removed whenever it is felt that their use is not necessary for any particular match.

Whatever form of protection against intrusion is used it must incorporate some form of emergency escape into the playing area for spectators, unless there exist, in the certified opinion of the local safety authorities, adequate means of emergency evacuation, to the rear or to the sides of the grandstands, sufficient to render the use of the playing area unnecessary for such purpose.

The type of protection adopted against intrusion must be approved by the competent local authorities and must not represent a danger to spectators in the event of panic or an emergency evacuation.


When constructing a new stadium, account must be taken of the fact that the spectators' sightlines must not be obstructed by the advertising boards which may be erected around the playing field as prescribed herein.

The minimum distances between the boundary lines of the playing field and the advertising boards, which normally have a maximum height of 90 cm, should be:
­ on the sidelines: 5.0 m
­ behind the goal-lines: 3.0 m at the corner flags
­ 3.5 m where the goal area line intersects the goal-line (this distance must be maintained from the points where the goal nets meet the ground).

Under no circumstances should advertising boards be:

  1. located in positions where they could constitute a danger to players, officials and others.

  2. erected in any fashion or be of any material which could endanger players.

  3. constructed of any surface material which could reflect light to such an extent that it could distract players, referees, or spectators.

  4. erected in any fashion which could obstruct spectators in the event of an emergency evacuation onto the playing area.


Access: There should be a private, protected area which can accommodate team buses and from which players may enter the stadium safely, away from the public.

Position: Should afford direct protected access to the playing area and be inaccessible to the public and the media.

Number: at least 2 separate rooms, but preferably 4.

Minimum size: 100 m² each.

Dressing rooms, toilet and bathing areas should:
­ be well ventilated with fresh air and be air-conditioned
­ have easily-cleanable floors and walls of hygienic material
­ have non-slippery floors
­ be brightly lit

Equipment in each room:
­ 2 massage tables
­ bench seating for at least 20 persons
­ clothes-hanging facilities or lockers for at least 20 persons
­ refrigerator
­ tactical demonstration board
­ telephone (external/internal)

Position: immediately adjacent to and with direct private access from the dressing room.

10 showers; 5 washbasins with mirrors; 1 foot-basin; 1 sink for cleaning boots; 3 urinals; 3 WC's; 2 electric shaving points; 2 hair dryers.

It is essential that the two principal dressing rooms in a stadium be of equal size, style and comfort. Frequently, it is found that the home team dressing room is infinitely superior to that which is provided for the visiting team, and whilst this may be acceptable at domestic football level, it diminishes the possibility of using the stadium as a neutral venue for a competition in which the organisers must provide both teams with equal facilities.


­ separate from teams' dressing rooms, but close by
­ should afford direct protected access to the playing area
­ should be inaccessible to the public and the media

Minimum size: at least 24 m².

The dressing room, toilet and bathing areas should:
­ be well ventilated with fresh air and be air-conditioned
­ have easily-cleanable floors and walls of hygienic material
­ have non-slippery floors
­ be brightly lit

­ clothes-hanging facilities or lockers for four persons
­ 4 chairs or bench seating for four persons
­ table
­ massage table
­ refrigerator
­ tactical demonstration board
­ telephone (external/internal)
­ television set

Position: immediately adjacent to and with direct private access from the dressing room.

2 showers; 1 washbasin with mirror; 1 urinal; 1 WC; 1 electric shaving point; 1 hair dryer; 1 sink for cleaning boots.


Position: in the dressing room area and as close to the teams' dressing rooms and the playing field as possible, with easy access to the outside entrance. The doors and corridors leading to this room should be wide enough to allow access for stretchers and wheelchairs.

Minimum size: 24 m²

­ examination couch
­ 2 portable stretchers (alongside the pitch during the game)
­ washbasin (hot water)
­ low foot-basin (hot water)
­ glass cabinet for medicaments
­ treatment table
­ oxygen bottle with mask
­ blood-pressure gauge
­ heating apparatus (hot plate) for instruments
­ telephone (external/internal)


Position: near the teams' and referees' dressing rooms.

Minimum size: 16 m².

­ desk or table
­ 3 chairs
­ clothes locker
­ telephone (external/internal)
­ toilet with hand washbasin and mirror
­ television set


Every stadium should have one room for dope-testing purposes with an adjoining waiting area or a room, and a working room.

Working room:

Position: near teams' dressing rooms and inaccessible to the public and the media.

Minimum size: 16 m².

The dope-testing room, the waiting area or room and the toilet area should:
­ be well ventilated with fresh air and be air-conditioned
­ have easily-cleanable floors and walls of hygienic material
­ have non-slippery floors
­ be brightly lit

­ desk
­ 2 chairs
­ washbasin and mirror
­ telephone (external/internal)
­ cabinet with a lock

Position: immediately next to, with direct private access to the working room.

­ WC
­ washbasin and mirror
­ shower

Waiting room:

Minimum size: 16 m².

Position: Part of or immediately adjacent to the working room.

­ sufficient seating for eight persons
­ clothes-hanging facilities or lockers for four persons
­ refrigerator
­ television set


Position: Close to the dressing rooms.

Minimum size: 100 m².

Each team should have a warm-up area which may be indoors or outdoors (provided it is private and secluded). These areas should have a grass surface (artificial indoors) and be surrounded by plain walls with no protrusions. Indoor areas should be ventilated with fresh air, be air-conditioned, and should be brightly illuminated with lights which are protected against damage by footballs.


Ideally, each of the teams' dressing rooms and the referees' dressing room should have its own corridor for access to the playing field. These corridors may join up near the exit to the playing area. If only one corridor is available it should be sufficiently wide to enable it to be divided by a barrier fence to ensure the separation of the teams when entering or leaving the field.

The point where the players and the referees enter the playing area, which ideally should be at the centre-line and on the same side as the VIP box, press stand and administrative offices, must be protected by means of a fireproof telescopic tunnel extending into the playing area far enough to prevent the risk of injury to the match participants caused by missiles thrown by spectators. Such telescopic tunnels should be capable of being extended or closed quickly so that they may be used during the match when a player is entering or leaving the field, without causing unduly lengthy viewing obstruction. Alternatively, and preferably, the entrance to the playing area may be by means of an underground tunnel, the mouth of which is situated a similarly safe distance away from spectators.

There should be no possibility of public or media interference at any point in these corridors or security tunnels.


Ideally, and subject to the available space, a modern stadium should be surrounded by an outer perimeter fence situated some distance from the stadium. At this outer fence the first ticket checks and, where necessary, body searches will be made. The second checks will be made at the stadium entrances. There should be sufficient space between the outer perimeter fence and the stadium turnstiles to permit the free movement of spectators without crushing.

Preventive measures must be taken to avoid crushing at the public entrances. This may be accomplished by a system of barriers designed to funnel spectators individually towards the entry points. Public amenities such as toilets, refreshment bars etc., inside and outside the stadium, should not be situated close to the turnstiles or to the entrance and exit routes.

All public entrances must be used only for the purpose of entry and must not be used simultaneously for exit. Similarly, all public exits must be used only for exit purposes and must never be used simultaneously as entrances. In every event, including the case of panic, it must be possible to completely evacuate the stadium within a minimum time agreed upon by the local safety authorities.


The capacity of each stadium will, of course, depend upon whatever may be required locally, but it should be kept in mind that, if it is hoped that the stadium will be used for major football events, capacities of 30,000 and upward will need to be provided.

All spectators must be seated in individual numbered, comfortably shaped seats affixed to the structure with backrests of a minimum compulsory height of 30 cm measured from the seat. Benches are not acceptable. Standing viewing areas should not be provided. There must be an unrestricted view of all parts of the playing field from each seat, bearing in mind that advertising boards, as prescribed under point 6, may be erected around the boundary lines.

The stadium should be divided into at least four separate sectors, each with its own access points, refreshment and toilet facilities and other essential services.

Each of these sectors may, in turn, be divided into smaller areas. It should be possible if and when necessary, to prevent spectators from moving from one sector, or sub-sector, to another, unless as part of the stadium's evacuation process. Each sector should have its own public toilet facilities (male and female), including toilet facilities for the disabled when necessary and its own public refreshment and first-aid facilities.

The nature of the barriers which may be used to sub-divide sectors is for each stadium management to determine but it should be kept in mind that formidable, insurmountable fences are ugly and present a negative impression for spectators.

All parts of the stadium, including entrances, exits, stairways, doors, passages, roofs, all public and private areas and rooms, etc., must comply with the safety standards of the appropriate local authority.


In the centre of the main grandstand in an elevated position above the playing area, partitioned off from the public seating areas.

The VIP area should have its own private entrance from outside, segregated from the public entrance points.

Individually numbered, good quality, tip-up seats covered by a roof and providing a good overall view of the playing area. Adequate leg room between the rows is essential.

The requirements will differ from competition to competition but a good modern stadium should provide VIP box seating for at least 300 persons, with the possibility of increasing this number considerably for major events.

Capable of providing standing refreshments for all occupants of the VIP box and situated immediately adjacent thereto.
­ Direct private access from the VIP box.
­ Sufficient toilet facilities (male and female).
­ Television viewing points.
­ Telephones (external/internal).


Proper provision should be made at all stadia to accommodate safely and comfortably spectators who are disabled, including the provision of good viewing facilities and ramps for wheelchairs, toilet facilities and support services. It should be possible for disabled persons, including those in wheelchairs, to gain entry to the stadium and to their viewing positions without undue inconvenience either to themselves or to other spectators. Disabled spectators should not be situated in any position within the stadium where their inability to move quickly would present a hazard to other spectators in the event of an emergency.


Allowance should be made for the fact that media facilities vary greatly according to the type of event. Whereas a few dozen desks for a national championship match will suffice, depending on the club and the media coverage available in the region, the working space requirements will multiply in the case of international matches.

If the demand for seats is great, normal spectator seats will have to be changed into seats for the press and television reporters. Normally a line of desk-tops is to be built over a row of seats; thus every other row is used for seating. Seating for the media should be located near the main media working area. It should be remembered that matches arousing great media interest require multiple telephone installations.

The working area for the media representatives should be under cover and located on the same side of the stands as the teams' dressing rooms. In the unavoidable event that media representatives must cross from one side of the stadium to the other to attend post-match interviews, a clearly defined route must be identified for this purpose.

Media representatives should be allocated places with a very good view of the stadium. In accordance with modern media practices for major competitions, a “mixed zone” for post-match interviews, in which selected media representatives may talk with players and team officials as they pass from the dressing rooms to the players' exit, should be located in a convenient area adjacent to the dressing rooms. The dimensions of the mixed zone area, which need not be specially constructed but may be adapted from existing available space, shall be determined by the media services depending on the number of journalists to be permitted access.


The following requirements reflect current standards in stadia for World Cups and European Championships at the time of going to press - however, exact capacities and quantities will in each case be determined jointly by the organising authorities, the media services and the broadcasting organisations. Especially in the field of television, flexibility is required in order to accommodate newly developing technologies to maximise coverage. A description is given of the positions for television cameras and microphones. As for lighting requirements, they change according to technical developments (e.g. introduction of HDTV, High Definition Television). In the case of a new stadium, it would be advisable to consult a leading television company or the appropriate continental television consortium (e.g. EBU for Europe, OTI for the Americas, etc.).

Many installations will be temporary ones (such as seats for radio and television commentators) which, depending on the importance of the game, will be erected for a short spell and then dismantled. It is essential to provide for easy access to and from these areas and an adequate electricity supply in the plans.

Camera positions

  1. All camera positions are subject to joint agreement between organisers and broadcasting authorities. Attention must be paid to avoiding the possibility of cameras being impeded by the public. Main cameras in the central stand or on the terraces must be situated at the halfway line at the point of intersection between the line to the nearest touchline, forming an angle of 27° to 35° with the horizontal, and that to the centre of the field forming an angle of 15° to 20° to the horizontal. If it is not possible to install the cameras at this exact position, then they should be placed at the nearest point within the sector formed by these two lines. These cameras must face away from the sun, giving an unhindered view of the whole playing surface. The commentators' positions have to be situated on the same side of the ground. A space of approximately 2 x 3 m should be allowed for each camera.

  2. Goal cameras, one behind each goal, situated on the longitudinal axis of the pitch, at a height which permits the penalty spot to be seen above the crossbar of the goal. The angle of the line of sight to the horizontal should be between 12° and 15°, and a space of 2 x 3 m is required for each camera.

  3. Atmosphere cameras of a portable type, of which there will be between three and six depending on the importance of the match, allowing movement along the touchline and in the area behind the goals.

  4. Possible additional camera positions to be discussed, including reverse angle cameras and cameras level with the edge of the penalty areas, taking account of developments in television coverage of football.

Positions for microphones
The necessary positions in the stands and along the touchline, excluding the substitutes' benches, to ensure that the atmosphere in the stadium is relayed to the viewing and listening public.

Commentary positions
Commentary positions, including three adjoining seats and a desk large enough to accommodate equipment, telephone and working papers. A pencil light should be provided for evening matches. Each position should be separated from other positions by a plastic screen or a gangway.

In general, for open stadia, temporary cover should be constructed to protect commentators and technical equipment from the elements.

The commentators' area has to be situated on the same side as the main cameras, as close as possible to the centre of the field, with an unimpeded view of the field, with easy access to other working facilities and separated from the public.

Camera positions
Camera positions for the installation of electronic cameras for unilateral coverage related to the matches, should be provided as follows:

At each unilateral camera position in the main stands and behind the goals, a feed of the international sound should be available.

  1. Platforms
    Space of approximately 2 x 3 m per camera should be provided alongside the multilateral cameras. The number of such spaces should be determined for the various rounds of the competition in discussion between organisers and broadcasters.

  2. Other space for cameras
    Ground level:
    Clearly defined and separate sectors behind the advertising boards behind each goal, measuring approximately 2 x 2 m per camera, the exact number of such positions to be determined between organisers and broadcasters.

    Broadcasting areas in the stands:
    Further positions may be located beside or behind the commentary area, as determined between organisers and broadcasters. Observer seats for broadcast personnel should also be located in this sector.

    Field areas:
    Where possible, space will be provided at specified places near the players' entrance to the field. The allocation and use of this space will be subject to regulations.

For matches played in the evening, the entire surface of the playing area must be evenly lit, with a minimum mean lighting level of 1200 lux.

In addition, emergency lighting should also be available in case of power failures, which would ensure at least two-thirds of the above-mentioned lighting level on the playing area.


Clear, comprehensive signposting should be provided at the stadium approaches, and around and throughout the stadium in order to show the routes to the different sectors. Tickets should clearly identify the location of the accommodation for which they have been issued. Information on the tickets should correlate with the signpost information provided both inside and outside the stadium. Colour-coding of tickets will assist the entry process and retained ticket stubs should contain information which will guide spectators once they are inside. Large-scale wall maps, readily understandable to people who may not speak the local language, should be provided for the guidance of spectators.

For the benefit particularly of visiting spectators, each sector of the stadium should have an information desk situated in the external circulation area.


Police, fire and emergency services, disabled spectators

Parking facilities immediately adjacent to or within the stadium must be provided for police vehicles, fire brigades, ambulances and other vehicles of the emergency services and for disabled spectators' vehicles. These parking places must be situated in such a fashion that they provide a direct, unrestricted means of entry to and departure from the stadium quite separate from the public access routes.

Teams, referees and administrative officials

Parking space for at least:
­ 2 buses
­ 10 cars
should be available immediately outside the dressing rooms, isolated from the public, and preferably inside the stadium. The players and match officials should be able to disembark from their transport and make direct entry to their dressing rooms without coming into contact with the public.

Near the VIP entrance and separate from the public car parks, there should be sufficient parking space for the buses and cars used by VIPs. Preferably, these vehicles should be parked inside the stadium.

Car parking, separate from the public parking area, should be provided as near as possible to the media working area for all media representatives. It is important to provide special parking facilities, close to the media working area, for the numerous heavy duty vehicles used by the television and radio services.

Sufficient parking space should be provided for all vehicles used by staff who will be engaged in providing services, e.g. security and safety personnel, doormen, stewards, caterers, etc.

Ideally, all parking places should be on site, affording spectators direct entrance to the stadium and should be secured against intrusion by unauthorised persons. The various car parks around the stadium should be sign-coded to relate to the stadium sector.

Generally, for a stadium with a capacity of 60,000, parking places should be provided for 10,000 cars. Separate parking places for buses should be provided, e.g. for a 60,000-capacity stadium, for approximately 500 buses.

It is essential to ensure that access to and egress from the car parks is rapid and smooth-flowing and that direct routes to the nearest motorways are provided.

The location of the car parks and bus parks should make it possible for the supporters of both teams to have separate parking facilities.

All car parks must be brightly lit.

Where on-site public parking is not possible, parking should be provided in principle no further than 1,500 m from the stadium.


A back-up power supply should be available in the event of a power failure in order that all public areas retain an acceptably safe standard of lighting, that the match may continue and television coverage may go on uninterrupted.


The stadium must have a central telephone switchboard which must be equipped with a taping facility for incoming calls.

Telephones must be provided at the following points:

  1. Dressing rooms for teams
  2. Dressing room for referees
  3. Match delegate's room
  4. Dope-testing room
  5. Medical examination room
  6. Police control room
  7. Stewards' control room
  8. Public address announcer's room
  9. First-aid rooms
  10. VIP areas
  11. Administrative offices
  12. Ticket sales offices
  13. Match control area between the substitutes' benches
  14. Media working areas

These various telephones must be interconnected and a list of extension numbers must be available at each point.

All sectors of the stadium should be equipped with an adequate number of telephones for use by the public.

Radio communication telephones should be available for use by the match organisers, the stadium administration, police, security, medical and fire authorities, etc.


The stadium must have a loudspeaker system which can be heard and understood perfectly in all spectator areas, inside and outside the stadium, and in the playing area. The system should be capable of being directed exclusively to the individual areas of the stadium and, of course, it should be capable of broadcasting music and other forms of entertainment.

The police commander should have an override facility to cut in to public broadcasts. The loudspeaker system must have a back-up power supply to guarantee its uninterrrupted use in the event of a power failure.

The public address control cabin should be situated immediately adjacent to the police command post and should have an overall view of the whole stadium.


Where they exist, the electronic scoreboards or the video-matrix screens should be capable of being used to relay safety or security messages to the spectators. The scoreboard operator should be situated immediately adjacent to the police command post and should have an overall view of the whole stadium.

Perhaps the most effective way of communicating with spectators is by the use of scoreboard messages. Additionally, of course, scoreboards provide an obvious means of entertaining spectators.


The stadium should be equipped inside and outside with public surveillance television cameras, colour or black and white, whichever is most suitable, mounted in fixed positions with pan and tilt facilities.

Additionally, hand held cameras should be available. These cameras should monitor all of the stadium's approaches and all of the public areas inside and outside the stadium.

The television surveillance system should have its own independent power supply and private circuit, be operated and controlled from the police command post, where the monitor screens should be situated, and be capable of taking still photographs both inside and outside the stadium.


The stadium must have a police command post which has an overall view of the inside of the stadium and which must be equipped with public address facilities and television surveillance monitor screens.

The police commander should have the capability of overriding and cutting into the public address system whenever necessary.

The system governing the arrest, detention and indictment of offenders may differ from country to country, or even from city to city, so stadium designers should consult with local civic and police authorities to determine if it is necessary to include within the stadium facilities such as a police muster room, a charge room, detention cells for male and female prisoners, etc.


Subject to local custom, the stadium may be equipped with an adequate number of ticket selling points around the perimeter area.


The fire fighting facilities available within the stadium and the general fire precautions must be approved by the local fire authorities, as must the fire safety standards of all parts of the stadium.


Every aspect of the stadium's structure must be approved and certified by the local building and safety authorities. It is appreciated that building and safety standards and requirements vary from country to country but it is essential that, within that framework, the most stringent safety standards are applied.


The stadium should be equipped with at least five flagpoles or, alternatively, should have the facility to display at least five flags by another suitable means.


There should be a sufficiently large clear area near the stadium which could serve as a helicopter landing pad.


Every stadium should be equipped with a first-aid room or rooms to care for spectators in need of medical assistance.

The number, size and location of these rooms should be agreed in consultation with the local health authority.

In general terms first-aid rooms should:

  1. be located in a position which allows easy access from both inside and outside the stadium to spectators and emergency vehicles.

  2. have doors and passageways leading to them which are wide enough to allow access for a stretcher or a wheelchair.

  3. have bright lighting, good ventilation, heating, electric sockets, hot and cold water, drinking water and toilet facilities for males and females.

  4. have walls and floors (non-slip) constructed of a smooth and easily-cleanable material.

  5. have storage space for stretchers, blankets, pillows and first-aid materials.

  6. have a telephone allowing internal and external communication.

  7. be clearly signposted throughout the inside and outside of the stadium.

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